The new Chief Justice, displaying considerable political skill and determination, the new chief justice succeeded in engineering a unanimous verdict against school segregation the following year. In the decision, issued on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” as segregated schools are “inherently unequal.” As a result, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs were being “deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.” Little Rock Nine In its verdict, the Supreme Court did not specify how exactly schools should be integrated, but asked for further arguments about it. In May 1955, the Court issued a second opinion in the case (known as Brown v. Board of Education II), which remanded future desegregation cases to lower federal courts and directed district courts and school boards to proceed with desegregation “with all deliberate speed.” *Though well intentioned, the Court’s actions effectively opened the door to local judicial and political evasion of desegregation. While Kansas and some other states acted in accordance with the verdict, many school and local officials in the South defied it. *In one major example, Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas called out the state National Guard to prevent black students from attending high school in Little Rock in 1957. After a tense standoff, President Eisenhower deployed federal troops, and nine students—known as the “Little Rock Nine”—were able to enter Central High School under armed guard *Impact of Brown v. Board of Education *Though the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board didn’t achieve school desegregation on its own, the ruling (and the steadfast resistance to it across the South) fueled the nascent civil rights movement in the United States. *In 1955, a year after the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. Her arrest sparked the Montgomery bus boycott and would lead to other boycotts, sit-ins and demonstrations (many of them led by Martin Luther King Jr.), in a movement that would eventually lead to the toppling of Jim Crow laws across the South. *Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, backed by enforcement by the Justice Department, began the process of desegregation in earnest. This landmark piece of civil rights legislation was followed by the Voting Rights Act of 1965 andthe Fair Housing Act of 1968. *In 1976, the Supreme Court issued another landmark decisionin Runyon v. McCrary, ruling that even private, nonsectarian schools that denied admission to students on the basis of race violated federal civil rights laws. *By overturning the “separate but equal” doctrine, the Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education had set the legal precedent that would be used to overturn laws enforcing segregation in other public facilities. But despite its undoubted impact, the historic verdict fell short of achieving its primary mission of integrating the nation’s public schools. *Today, more than 60 years after Brown v. Board of Education, the debate continues over how to combat racial inequalities in the nation’s school system, largely based on residential patterns and differences in resources between schools in wealthier and economically disadvantaged districts across the country. There is a particular school district of which I have recently learned has revenue of approximately $325,000,000 and expenditures of approximately $425,000,000 with that leaves about $887,000,000 over budget and there’s $7,000,000 debt. But districts like this continuously operate and more money is poured into failing districts mismanaged both academically and financially. At the same time, taxpayers are paying their hard earned money down a black hole. What is the problem and where is the problem? I know, but I won’t say just yet. Do you know? It would be well for you to learn. You may already know and don’t realize you know.
*Sources*History – Brown v. Board of Education Re-enactment, United States Courts.*Brown v. Board of Education, The Civil Rights Movement: Volume I (Salem Press).Cass Sunstein, “Did Brown Matter?” The New Yorker, May 3, 2004.*Brown v. Board of Education, PBS.org.*Richard Rothstein, Brown v. Board at 60, Economic Policy Institute, April 17, 2014.*Citation Information*Article Title*Brown v. Board of Education*Author*History.com Editors*Website Name*HISTORY*URL*https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of- education-of-topeka*Access Date*July 3, 2020*Publisher*A&E Television Networks*Last Updated*April 8, 2020*Original Published Date*October 27, 2009*BY* HISTORY.COM EDITORS
Jeanette Grattan Parker Ph. D-Founder-Superintendent Todays Fresh Start Charter School www.todaysfreshstart.org (323)293-9826 4514 Crenshaw Blvd. Los Angeles, California 90043: firstname.lastname@example.org Weekly Columnist for LA Sentinel News & LA South Chamber of Commerce email@example.com articles copyright December 10, 2020 all rights reserved ©”Inquiring Minds Want To Know”© July 16, 2020 website askdrjeanetteparker.com “©The Father Famine” “Ask Dr. Jeanette”™